Understanding retinal diseases

At Bayer, we are dedicated to working with the ophthalmology community to help transform lives. As part of our commitment, we have created a range of materials to promote training and support you in your knowledge of the different macular disease areas.

On this website you will find four slide presentations, developed in collaboration with leading experts, that will give you a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the current understanding of wet AMD, BRVO, CRVO and DMO and the treatment options available.

The presentations are free for you to view, download, and share with your colleagues and peers for educational purposes. We hope you will find them useful.


AMD (age-related macular degeneration) is a chronic progressive condition associated with aging.1-3 It leads to central vision loss, which can be irreversible if the disease is left untreated or is suboptimally managed.1-3

Wet AMD affects 10–15% of patients with AMD,4 but accounts for approximately 90% of the severe visual acuity loss caused by the disease.5 Characterised by the presence of subretinal fluid, subretinal haemorrhage, retinal pigment epithelium detachment and hard exudates, it can be treated effectively with anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) therapies.6

View the full presentation to learn more.

  1. Bird AC et al. Surv Ophthalmol 1995;39(5):367-374.
  2. de Jong PT. N Engl J Med 2006;355(14):1474-1485.
  3. NEI. Facts About Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Available from: https://nei.nih.gov/health/maculardegen/armd_facts. Accessed April 2020.
  4. RNIB. Advice for age-related macular degeneration in primary care. 2016. Available from: https://www.rnib.org.uk/sites/default/files/Age-related%20macular%20degeneration.pdf. Accessed April 2020.
  5. AAO. Age-Related Macular Degeneration PPP. 2019. Available from: https://www.aao.org/preferred-practice-pattern/age-related-macular-degeneration-ppp. Accessed April 2020.
  6. Lim JI et al. Lancet 2012; 379:1728-1738.

Wet AMD_Current understanding and approaches to treatment.ppt 20.9MB



RVO (retinal vein occlusion) is an obstruction of one of the veins that drain blood away from the retina.1

BRVO (branch retinal vein occlusion) affects a branch retinal vein,1 and it is associated with complications such as macular oedema, retinal ischaemia, and neovascularisation, which can lead to vision loss.2

The main symptom of BRVO is blurring of central vision, which can be sudden or gradual and is normally painless.3,4

View the full presentation to learn more.

  1. Kiire CA and Chong NV. BMJ 2012;344:e499.
  2. Ehlers JP and Fekrat S. Surv Ophthalmol 2011;56(4):281-299.
  3. AAO. Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion (BRVO) Symptoms. Available from: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-symptoms. Accessed April 2020.
  4. ASRS. Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion. Available from: https://www.asrs.org/patients/retinal-diseases/24/branch-retinal-vein-occlusion. Accessed April 2020.

BRVO_Current understanding and approaches to treatment.ppt 10.3MB



CRVO (central retinal vein occlusion) is an obstruction of the central retinal vein in the retrolaminar region of the optic nerve head caused by thrombosis, inflammation or arteriosclerosis.1

It generally manifests as a sudden, acute and painless unilateral loss of vision,2 typically with image distortion and blurriness,3 and it can affect peripheral visual fields as well as the macula.4

VEGF levels in eyes with CRVO are among the highest in all retinal disorders.5-9 They are up to 12 times higher than in BRVO, and up to 69 times greater compared with wet AMD.5-9

View the full presentation to learn more.

  1. Morley MG and Heier JS. Venous obstructive disease of the retina. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS (eds). Ophthalmology. 3rd edition. Mosby Elsevier; 2009, pp 597-605.
  2. Wong TY and Scott IU. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:2135-2144.
  3. AAO. What Is Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO)? Available from: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-is-central-retinal-vein-occlusion. Accessed April 2020.
  4. Hayreh SS et al. Ophthalmology 2011;118:119-133.
  5. Noma H et al. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2010;248(11):1559-1565.
  6. Noma H et al. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2006;244(3):309-315.
  7. Asato R et al. ARVO 2010. Poster presentation (D977).
  8. Noma H et al. Ophthalmol 2009;116(1):87-93.
  9. Noma H, et al. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2008;6:1017-1019.

CRVO_Current understanding and approaches to treatment.ppt 14.4MB



DMO (diabetic macular oedema) is a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia and occurs when blood vessels leak fluid into the retina.1-3

This is mediated by a number of inter-related pathological processes associated with elevated VEGF levels, which lead to ocular angiogenesis and vascular permeability.1-3

View the full presentation to learn more.

  1. Bhagat N et al. Surv Ophthalmol 2009;54(1):1-32.
  2. Stitt AW et al. Clin Sci (Lond) 2013;125(1):1-17.
  3. Falcão M et al. Open Circ Vasc J 2010;3:30-42.

DMO_Current understanding and approaches to treatment.ppt 20.6MB


EYLEA is indicated for adults for the treatment of neovascular (wet) age-related macular degeneration (AMD), visual impairment due to macular oedema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (branch or central RVO) and visual impairment due to diabetic macular oedema (DMO) and myopic choroidal neovascularisation (mCNV).1

  1. Eylea Summary of Product Characteristics. July 2018.
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